Chemicals Found in Coal Sludge and Slurry

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To process Appalachian coal for market, companies wash and prepare it using water, coagulants, flocculants and surfactants.  Coal slurry consists of this chemically treated water and very fine particles of coal, rock and clay. 

The rock, coal, and clays contain a wide range of heavy metals including arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, iron, manganese, aluminum and nickel—all of which dissolve in the water—and some hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals.  While patent law limits the information available about the chemicals used in coal processing, serious concerns about their neurotoxic and carcinogenic effects particularly on workers in the plants [link] have been raised. Reagents used in processing coal include acrylamides, (some acrylamides are carcinogenic), lime (pH adjuster), natural and modified starches, caustic starch, denatured alcohol, sulfuric acid (pH adjuster), nitric acid (pH adjuster), aluminum sulfate (pH adjuster), iron oxide, diesel fuel and anhydrous ammonia. 

There have been very few independent tests of the composition of coal slurry.  Since the chemical composition of slurry can be variable depending on the chemical make-up of the coal being processed as well as the chemicals used in a particular prep plant's washing technique, this means that citizens can have a hard time figuring out exactly what chemicals they are at risk of exposure to.

Below is a list of some of the chemicals found in slurry and sludge:

Aniline
Acenaphthene
Acenapthylene
Anthracene
Benzidine
Benzo(a)anthracene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(ghi)perylene
Benzo(k)fluoroanthene
Benzyl alcohol
bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
bis(2-chloroethoxy)-methane
bis(2-chloroethyl)ether
bis(2-chloroisopropyl)ether
Butyl benzyl phthalate
Chrysene
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
Dibenzofuran
Dibutyl phtalate
Diethyl phthalate
Dimethyl phthalate
Dioctylphthalate
Fluoranthene
Fluorene
Hexachlorobenzene
Hexachloroethane
Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene
Isophorone
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine
N-Nitrosodiphenylamine
Naphthalene
Nitrobenzene
Phenanthrene
Pyrene
 
Acrylamide
Hexachloro-1,3-Butadiene
Hexa-Cl-1,3-Cyclopentadiene
1,2,4-trichlorobenzene
1,2-Dichlorobenzene
1,3-Dichlorobenzene
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
2,4-Dinitrotoluene
2,6-Dinitrotoluene
2-Chloronaphtalene
2-Methylnapthalene
|2-Nitroaniline
3-3'-Dichlorobenzidine
3-Nitroaniline
4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether
4-Chloroaniline
4-Chhlorophenyl phenyl ether
4-Nitroaniline

Specific Elements and Compounds
Source: Kentucky Division of Water. DOW-DES Analytical Data File.
Electronic File: Martin Co.Coal.Co.Slurry Release Data.xls

Heavy Metals Found in Coal Slurry

Aluminum
Antimony
Arsenic
Barium
Beryllium
Cadmium
Calcium
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Iron
Lead
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
Molybdenum
Nickel
Potassium
Selenium
Silver
Sodium
Strontium
Tin
Vanadium
Zinc